The bees might not be doing much but the beekeeper has plenty of work.
After ensuring all the hives have been fed the feeders were removed, thoroughly washed and dried before being put into storage.
The bees were still flying on the odd warm day and bringing in what pollen they could find.
The old fruit-cage nets went over the hives in case a hard permafrost gave the green woodpeckers need for apian sustenance.
Oxalic acid was administered on 7th January and all hives were alive. Ideally this treatment should have been done after a lengthy very cold spell had stopped the queen laying. As it was, I had to do it after only three days of night frosts before the warm(ish) weather returned. Two colonies were rather small and their future depends very much on whether the winter remains mild.
The varroa trays were all inserted to see what effect the oxalic had. The nets were replaced and everything was left to settle down for a few more weeks.
The humidity in the bee-shed has left everything slightly damp so the clothing has come indoors for airing. Now is also the time to do any necessary repairs.
This is the month for winter feed. 2 gallons of 2:1 sugar solution per hive have been mixed and this is supplemented with ½ gallon of waste honey. It’s all mixed ready so they can all be fed simultaneously.
Miller feeders were put on all the hives and come the evening the syrup was poured in.
Some hives had taken it all down in two days whereas others were somewhat tardy. It’s comforting that they all took the feed because failure to do so is a sure sign of queenlessness.
Feeders off and varroa treatment can begin. I’m still doing the weekly count so I can see the efficacy of the Apivar before we go into winter. The last treatment was done in early spring 2016 but it makes more sense to get them going into the winter with, hopefully, a clean bill of health so we start the new year with stronger bees.
Apple weekend at Audley End has just been and gone with another great two days amongst all our friends down in the kitchen garden. The observation hive never fails to be an attraction. This year I have brought them home and transferred them in to a 4-frame nucleus hive. They were a late cast and too small to overwinter. I have added some frames of emerging brood to boost their numbers and get them well fed. This is taking longer as they can only take a 1lb jar contact feeder.
Clearer boards were put in place to clear the bees from the last dregs of honey remaining in the final supers. It really was the dregs as eleven supers yielded only three tubs of honey. Most of it was uncapped but had been sitting for so long that the bees had ripened it.
All the wet supers were replaced for a few days for licking clean and then began the mammoth task of scraping down frames and boxes and sterilising before packing away. An opened-out broadsheet is placed between each box and this acts as a cushion to prevent ingress of the wax-moth. Super frames are at very little risk as wax-moth needs the debris of the brood combs for food and therefore prefers these combs.
One of the big problems this season has been loss of queens on mating flights. This has happened time and again and I have finished the season with four queenless colonies. Fortunately I still have the nucleus colonies removed as swarm prevention so with uniting and requeening all should be well before the winter.
Alongside queenlessness the other big problem has been robbing. I have fitted the anti-robbing screens, reduced the entrances to one bee space and placed a large sheet of glass in front of the target hives.
Unfortunately the offenders just move down the line and target the next hive. The thieves are not from my apiary but are insurgents; either from the two feral colonies in chimneys over the road (hopefully a cold winter will put paid to them) or from other hives in the village.
Several swarm calls have enabled hive S2 to go back into service again but not into production; too late in the season for that.
Warleys, the field behind us, was re-drilled with borage to replace the ploughed-in oil-seed-rape. This grew well and came truly on flower at the beginning of July. Unfortunately some other more attractive forage took the bees in the opposite direction for the first two weeks.
Whilst the field was in flower it seemed a good time to hold a garden-meeting of Saffron Walden Beekeepers and have a visiting speaker from Kings/Frontier Seeds to talk about this and other pollinators’ crops. To that end, Paul Brown gave us an interesting illustrated talk and the weather was more kindly to us this time.
We had hoped to have a field walk to see the borage in full flower but the contractor moved in the day before and swathed the whole field. This however wasn’t entirely wasted as many members had not seen the result of this process at such close quarters .
Four colonies have been strong enough to benefit from the last two week’s of flower so this will hopefully enable me to recoup a little of the dismal spring harvest.
Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus has worked its way down the row from hive 8 and hive 4 is now the hardest hit. A visitor to the apiary last week commented on all the dead bees lying on the ground around the hive. No cure unfortunately, so we can only hope they recover of their own accord before the winter.
Stuart Roweth has supplied me with some Mini-Beegyms and these are being installed during the regular inspections. Varroa-drop data is being collected on a weekly basis and I’ll publish that at the end of the season.
More than twenty years ago I made the decision that out-apiaries were just not worth the trouble. Arriving to find that you needed a special piece of equipment and having to make an extra journey; arriving to do an inspection and finding that nothing had changed; strapping up the hives to transport them back and forth etc.
However………..110 acres of winter beans right on my friend’s doorstep was just too much of a temptation so I duly strapped up two hives and made the move. All that happened was my original decision was reinforced. Instead of the expected 50-60lbs of honey per hive, I doubt if I’ve got 5-6 pounds.
The weather was appalling and coupled with too lazy, over defensive colonies I resented having to make the weekly journey. They’d been over there for nearly a month whilst the colonies at my home apiary, in spite of 'the June gap', were managing to find some forage somewhere and really going at it.
Hive S2 is already at home and has been united with hive 3 which started as a 3-frame swarm prevention ‘nuc’.
The queen was removed from S2 in a matchbox and the hive was strapped up and brought home to stand alongside 3. Later that evening a sheet of newspaper was placed over 3 and held down with a queen-excluder.
Hive S2 was gently lifted from its floor and placed above. Hopefully they’ll spend the next week of bad weather nibbling through the paper and getting to know one another. In six days time I will separate the boxes, check that the queen has come through the ordeal, put all the brood down below, and remove the top box.
Spring this year has been a long drawn out extension of winter and now we get the sudden burst of summer.
Feral colonies which have been sitting waiting for the right conditions will now have switched to full swarming mode and the phone will soon be ringing. Most of my calls will be from people I’ve helped in the past but if you are in the Saffron Walden area and are unfortunate enough to discover a swarm in your garden then call me on 01799 527773 or 07923 470733.
Slovenia to be precise; home to the carniolan bee and the only country with a National Museum of Beekeeping. We were only there for a few days but a pilgrimage to the town of Radovljica was essential. (http://www.slovenia.info/?muzej=10115)
Interestingly, the custodian agreed that Varroa and other parasites and diseases have been helped to spread around the world by man’s desire to move bees. Slovenia bans the import of honeybees of any kind but ironically actively encourages the export of their own carniolan bees. BBKA advises strongly against importing ‘carnis’. First because of the dangers of importing disease and also because the first generation cross with our own bees produces aggressive offspring. Not something any caring beekeeper would wish on their neighbours.
We saw the Znidersic hive popularly used by most Slovenians which was a development of Dzierzon’s original moveable frame hive; the hive which Langstroth further developed so that his moveable frames were lifted from the top rather than being slid out at the back.
There being no other visitors that afternoon I was permitted to dismantle one of these hives to discover the inner workings.
The back door opens and then removing the cross bars enables the frames to be slid out backwards. There is no heavy lifting of supers as frames can be removed individually as they are filled.
Four out of every thousand Slovenians are beekeepers and many of them still continue the tradition of painting the fronts of their hives with beautiful folk art illustrations. This assists the returning foragers to find their own hive in a crowded apiary and also identifies each beekeeper’s own hives.
The cold weather arrived at last and the queens stopped laying. At least that’s what appeared to happen.
March was disappointing weather-wise and we had to cancel the first garden meeting of Saffron Walden division of Essex Beekeepers. The day was cold wet and windy and no way could a hive be opened.
When we did get the odd warmer day in early April a swift inspection revealed that there were small patches of sealed brood but eggs and larvae had only just been started. Question; will the colonies be large enough for the rape which is just coming on flower?
I now carry a thermometer in my tool-kit and one morning it was up to 20º in the apiary so I decided to do a ‘hive spring-clean’.
A clean and sterilised hive was set up alongside hive 7 and the frames scraped down and moved across one at a time. The hives were then swapped over.
Regrettably hive 7 looks doomed; two small patches of sealed brood but no eggs or larvae. The queen was in attendance but so was a queen-cell complete with larva starting to be fed. The queen herself looked as if she had a slightly deformed wing which could be the cause of her barrenness.
She, along with the two frames with brood and any nurse bees who wish to remain will be put in a nucleus hive and moved elsewhere. Flying bees will boost hive 8. Whether the new queen will get mated is debatable as there are no drones flying yet. Either way, this colony isn’t going anywhere this season.
The weather has been unusually mild which is not good news for the bees.
Firstly it doesn’t wipe out the extended wasp season and thirdly it delays an effective oxalic acid treatment. The acid, when dribbled between the occupied frames kills all the varroa mites on the bees. Unfortunately it doesn’t kill the mites sealed within the developing brood. The plan is to wait until the cold weather slows down the queen’s laying to almost zero and then keep your fingers crossed that the cold continues whilst all the sealed brood hatches and releases the varroa.
Wednesday the 20th looks as if it might be the only opportunity before the cold snap breaks.
I still haven’t netted the hives as we have not had any real permafrost. I’ll be watching them closely however for any signs of green woodpecker damage.
All the feeders have now been taken off and once the Apivar has been removed the crown boards will be replaced with matchsticks under the corners and insulation under the roofs.
We got another oak-honeydew harvest this year; the third in 37 years. This year’s was the best, or worst, depending on your preferences. Many of the Audley End customers and several of my regulars look upon it as a rare treat so I’ll be doing separate bottling.
For those of you unfamiliar with honeydew this is a sap-based honey as opposed to the usual floral nectar. If the oaks are infested with aphids, these insect nibble through the surface of the leaves to suck the sap. The don't need much carbohydrate as they don't use much energy so they excrete the excess back onto the leaf where the bees can harvest it first thing in the morning when the dew is on it; hence the name. It is dark in colour as it contains not only the usual glucose and fructose but also maltose which gives it its distinct colour and flavour
I’m writing this on 11th November and worker wasps were still flying today in large numbers as I was trying to clean down the feeders. I still can’t leave the bee-shed door open without attracting unwelcome visitors.